Conversations: 10/6/2017

CONNECT WITH EXPERT ASSISTANTS

Have you ever considered working with a Writing Assistant (Editor/Coach), or Ghostwriter? If you have a novel, memoir, poetry collection, or any other manuscript that is buried in your basement, I hope you will consider bringing it back to life by joining forces with an expert collaborator. Here are two True Stories I hope will encourage you.

True Story: My friend Sue (not her real name) and I met at a writers’ conference last year. Instantly we knew we’d be good friends because we had so much in common. On the last day of the conference we exchanged cards and wished each other well in our writing adventures. Several months later Sue called me and asked to “get together.” We met at a local coffee shop and barely sat down with our steaming cups of caffeine before she announced, “This idea hit me—like an epiphany—and I know it’s supposed to be a book. It just has to be written, so I need your help.” That was the beginning of a two-hour conversation that sent us on a wild ride. I became her “writing assistant,” her editor, writing coach and friend. The manuscript is now with a traditional publishing house.

True Story #2: While sitting at dinner with our neighbors, Bill mentioned that he’d written a little poetry over the years. “When I’m looking at the beauty of nature, words just seem to come to me.” Of course I encouraged him to continue writing because his observations of the world around us are as unique as a finger print—no two are alike. Not long after that conversation, Bill called and asked if I’d like to take a look at some of his work—poetry that he’d matched to his prize-winning photography. To my delight, his extended dining room table was covered with small “prints” of his favorite photographs. Then he handed me a thick stack of hand-written poetry. Over the next three years we worked together to produce two beautiful collections of his photography and verse: From Delicate Lily Pads to Sculptured Peaks, and Impressions of Nature in Black and White by William A. Carlson. Would these books have ever been published without the friendship connection and the TLC of expert assistance? Maybe. “But doubtful,” says Bill.

As my writing life developed into the business of being a “writer’s assistant” I discovered a whole new level of JOY walking through the creative process with another writer and helping their works “find the light of day.” Writing a book (fiction or nonfiction) is a big commitment, and having support from a trained and experienced writer is just what the “book doctor” ordered. Assistant classifications include:

  • The Writing Consultant who can brainstorm the plot/concept with you and help you smash through any writer’s block.
  • The Coach/Editor who reads and offers editing, word choice, and enhancement ideas.
  • The Ghostwriter who develops your original ideas to complete the manuscript. And, like one Ghostwriter is fond of saying: “When it comes to our clients, we are as silent as Jeeves.” Yes, indeed, the professional Ghostwriter never reveals the names of their clients—unless, of course, the client gives permission, places their name on the cover as, written with, or decides the Ghostwriter’s input deserved the co-author title.

How do you find these experts? Most of us are proficient using Google to find any category of experts we’re looking for, including writing consultants, editors and ghostwriters. Their websites may be big and beautiful, however, finding the right FIT with someone you can work with is the real Key to Success.

Most writers’ conference (like the one that I attended with the author in the first True Story—above) set up a panels of experts for writers to talk with which is an excellent way to meet experienced assistants. Even if you’re not able to meet with them at length, and discuss your project, you can at least take their card and contact them later.

However, my go-to place to find professional help is the self-publishing company where I (and several clients) have published. If authors don’t find a perfect fit with one of their Consultants, Editors, or Ghostwriters, they offer other in-house expert connections. AND, unlike traditional houses who hire experts to create books that meet the “projected value” of their business, self-publishing companies hire professional individuals who will listen to each author, and offer their very best help to complete the book that the author has written.

So DIG OUT your old manuscript(s) and find the specialized collaborator who will pump life back into it. You owe it to yourself and your Readers! ⚓︎

 


Royalene

ABOUT ROYALENE DOYLE: Royalene has been writing something since before kindergarten days and continues to love the process. Through her small business—DOYLE WRITING SERVICES—she brings more than 40 years of writing experience to authors who need “just a little assistance” with completing their projects. This is a nice fit as she develops these blogs for Outskirts Press (OP) a leading self-publisher, and occasionally accepts a ghostwriting project from one of their clients. Her recent book release (with OP) titled FIREPROOF PROVERBS, A Writer’s Study of Words, is already receiving excellent reviews including several professional writer’s endorsements given on the book’s back cover.
Royalene’s writing experience grew through a wide variety of positions from Office Manager and Administrative Assistant to Teacher of Literature and Advanced Writing courses and editor/writer for an International Christian ministry. Her willingness to listen to struggling authors, learn their goals and expectations and discern their writing voice has brought many manuscripts into the published books arena.

Conversations: 5/27/2016

HELPING HANDS, MINDS and HEARTS

Part IV

It is my hope that the information I’ve offered you this month about GHOSTWRITERS has been beneficial. This partnership/ghostwriting career brings two people together in a hearts, minds and hands pursuit to complete something wonderful that neither writer could do alone. In this last blog entry of the month, I’ll give you a few more examples of WHY you may really need to work of a Ghostwriter.

  • Are you an expert in your career field or educational experience? Do you have a “great idea” for a book with no time or professional writing ability to develop a readable book? You need the help of a Ghostwriter!
  • Are you a CEO of a business that is “doing okay” but you hope will “thrive” someday? Working with a Ghostwriter will allow you to TELL the story about how and why you birthed this business. People will read about the foundational reasons you’re “in business,” respect what you’ve built and come knocking at your business doors.
  • Are you a politician who dreams of working within “the system” to breath “new life” into it? Whether you choose to publish under your own name or with a pseudonym, the clarity of your message must be of highest priority. The Ghostwriter who shares your vision will help you.
  • Do you dream about what life was like for your grandparents—great-grandparents—great-great-grandparents…? Would you like to write a book about their lives, the countries they came from and the wars they survived? That takes a LOT of research, and most people have very little time to dedicate to that kind data search. The Ghostwriter who specializes in memoirs and/or history research is just the person to help you.
  • Are you a CPA who sees “the writing on the wall” in the financial lives of your clients without the ability to explain the steps they need to take to protect their future?
  • Are you a TV Journalist who sees the “real world” on a daily basis yet has only 30-60-90 seconds to express ALL you want to say to your viewers? Journalists are born writers, yet rarely do they have the time and/or reserved energy to write the books that are clamoring within them. Please! Don’t wait until you retire! Connect with a Ghostwriter (who may have also worked as a journalist) and get your book-s written!
  • Are you a Medical Professional who can offer expert information that will benefit potential patients (every person on earth) saving them unnecessary physical, mental or emotional stress? You probably have boxes full of research! Hire a Ghostwriter! Point them in the direction you believe is best and LET your book be written!

Several years ago, one of my very, very best friends passed from this earth. (Yes, I know, it’s not quality writing to use the word very, let alone use it twice. But the truth of it stands as is.) She was a writer I consider to be extraordinarily gifted. She could write with such great empathy whether developing a children’s novel, poetry, or creating magazine articles.

Much of my friend’s work was published in non-fiction genres. But she always returned to her prose writing. One fiction story in particular carried such intensity of emotion, woven with the power of colliding circumstances, that I have not forgotten it—in thirty-plus years. However, she never published that novel, and I have grieved its loss. This writer—my dear friend—wrote with such a unique perspective that inspired excellent life values without “preaching.” She considered working with a Ghostwriter to complete that novel—but didn’t.

SO IT IS I SAY to you, today, DO NOT WAIT! Find the Ghostwriter/partner who will work with you on your book until it is completed! Get referrals from publishers. If you want to work “hand and glove” with a Ghostwriter, talk with your local Liberians and/or local Writing groups. However, the best Ghostwriter for you and your project may not live in your community. Don’t hesitate to expand your search. The majority of my clients live in other states and we’ve never met (face-to-face) but have enjoyed great success in completing their work—and seeing it PUBLISHED! The right writing partner is waiting for your call! Today is the day to start your search! ⚓︎

RoyaleneABOUT ROYALENE DOYLE: Royalene has been writing something since before kindergarten days and continues to love the process. Through her small business—DOYLE WRITING SERVICES—she brings more than 40 years of writing experience to authors who need “just a little assistance” with completing their projects. This is a nice fit as she develops these blogs for Outskirts Press (OP) a leading self-publisher, and occasionally accepts a ghostwriting project from one of their clients. Her recent book release (with OP) titled FIREPROOF PROVERBS, A Writer’s Study of Words, is already receiving excellent reviews including several professional writer’s endorsements given on the book’s back cover.  

Royalene’s writing experience grew through a wide variety of positions from Office Manager and Administrative Assistant to Teacher of Literature and Advanced Writing courses and editor/writer for an International Christian ministry. Her willingness to listen to struggling authors, learn their goals and expectations and discern their writing voice has brought many manuscripts into the published books arena.

In Your Corner : Do I need a ghostwriter?

How do you know if it’s time to seek out a ghostwriter to help you complete your book?  And what all is involved in the process of ghostwriting, anyway?  Is it really any different from detailed copyediting?

If you’re asking these questions, I hope what I write here will help to answer at least a few of them.

As with any writing venture, ghostwriting is a unique experience that presents unique challenges in addition to unique benefits.  You won’t ever find me pretending otherwise, just as you won’t find me beating around the bush when it comes to recommending a thorough and professional edit of your manuscript once it’s been written––and just as I held no punches when I worked to draw a dividing line between copyediting and proofreading in my blog post two weeks ago.

So, what is ghostwriting?  It is, according to the “Publishing” page on About.com, “the practice of writing for and in the name of someone else. It is most commonly associated with book publishing, but today it is also widely used in public relations, corporate communications, social media, and many other industries and fields that are producing greater and greater amounts of written content.”  Many of our most prolific “superstar” genre specialists, like John Grisham and Tom Clancy and Nora Roberts (and so on and so on to infinity) employ a combination of understudies, assistants or secondary writers, and ghostwriters.  They are called upon to generate, quite simply, too much material for a single human being to keep pace.  But many if not most niche storytellers––whether famous or indie, traditionally published or self-publishing––lead hectic and busy lives that keep them from writing the books that they want to.  We just can’t ignore the fact that self-publishing authors deserve to know that there is another option out there for them!

ghostwriting

The process is relatively simple: most ghostwriters work on a contract or freelance basis for companies like Outskirts Press, so the fastest way to get yourself set up with an accomplished and expert ghostwriter is to go through one of these established websites.  Perhaps the best reason of all to go with someone who has been vetted and proven trustworthy is this: ghostwriting is, at its core, a collaborative venture between you (the author) and your ghostwriter.  How you choose to work depends more on you and what your vision for a piece demands than it does on time constraints, or one hopes for such a truth in a perfect universe.  (Being too rushed for time to go it alone is a wholly valid reason to hire a ghostwriter!)

Ghostwriting has been around awhile.  Long enough, in fact, that industry supergiants like Forbes have taken a look at it––and, circling back to my comment about collaboration:  In this article for Forbes, contributor Sydney LeBlanc writes that “you can turn [your] entire book project over to the writer (research and writing) or you can provide research, notes, periodicals, etc that will help the writer.”  That’s one option, but “You can also have regular ‘interviews’ with the writer who will take notes or record conversations with you about the topic. The writer will write draft chapters for you to review, edit, or make suggestions.”  LeBlanc says that, ultimately, “There are many ways to work with a ghostwriter; it all depends on what is convenient or best for you and what is in your budget.”  (Emphasis mine.)

Hopefully this is enough to convince you that seeking out a ghostwriter is a simple and easy thing to do, and that therefore we can move past one of several possible obstacles to taking that course of action!

(PERSONAL ASIDE & RANT: Enough with the stigma, already!  Everyone’s writing method looks different, anyway, so why do we feel guilty over choosing to bring someone else in on the process?  Let’s celebrate diversification through collaboration rather than taking ghostwriting as a marker of a lack of creativity!)

So, how do you know it’s time to start researching ghostwriting as a viable option for your book?  Well, here’s a simple rule of thumb: if you can answer all or even most of the following questions with “yes,” then it might be time:

  1. Are you overworked, overstressed, or overcommitted?
  2. Do you have a story to share?
  3. Do you need a little help developing your ideas beyond the outline or draft stage?
  4. Do you believe in artistic collaboration?
  5. Can you trust the ghostwriter you pick to do justice to your vision?

Here’s where ghostwriting diverges from that other industry-specific term, “copyediting” : a copyeditor’s job is to take a finished draft and polish it up for final publication.  A thorough copyedit involves more than just shuffling commas around, but it won’t substantially change the core content of a piece.  Ghostwriting, on the other hand, involves the conceptualization and generation of a great deal of new material.  Your ghostwriter becomes your collaborator and your partner in crime, your sounding board and scribe.  Ghostwriters become folded into your stories, and it is in their best interest as paid professionals to deliver the best service they can––but if you’re both lucky, your ghostwriter might even become your ally and friend.  And what could be better than that?  Writing can be such an isolating experience, but I’d like to assure you as I do each and every week:

 

You’re not alone. ♣︎

ElizabethABOUT ELIZABETH JAVOR: With over 18 years of experience in sales and management, Elizabeth Javor works as the Manager of Author Services for Outskirts Press. The Author Services Department is composed of knowledgeable publishing consultants, pre-production specialists, customer service reps and book marketing specialists; together, they all focus on educating authors on the self-publishing process to help them publish the book of their dreams. Whether you are a professional looking to take your career to the next level with platform-driven non-fiction or a novelist seeking fame, fortune, and/or personal fulfillment, Elizabeth Javor can put you on the right path.

Friday Conversations With A Self-Publishing Writer 10/11/13

The Christian Inspirational genre is certainly one of the hottest markets for self-publishing authors.  When someone’s faith mixes with experience writers communicate with their readers in a unique and extremely uplifting way—a way that enriches mind and heart to see possibilities beyond their circumstances.

Although many of the books in this genre are written (or ghostwritten) by well-known people, many more are written by people like you.  Their “real life” topics cross over faith denominations into the “real world” with subject matter such as: liberation from life’s burdens; healing wounded hearts; the gift of beauty for ashes; and eternal security.  No one—literally no one—can tell these experiences better than the person who has lived through them.  However, there are a few unique methods to remember when developing the manuscripts, and they begin with preparing yourself to “tell the truth” to the best of your ability.

Whether you are creating your manuscript yourself, or you’re working with a self-publishing team (publishing consultant, author representative, production supervisor, designers, and production managers), and/or a ghostwriter, here are a few things to remember:

  1. Build the timeline.  Most inspiring stories come from finally seeing a positive—even miraculous—result from some not-so-pleasant experiences.  The timeline (for this one book) is most easily built backwards.  Starting with the conclusion of events will allow you to see all the pieces leading up to that more clearly.
  2. List the people.  Make a list of the people who were connected to this process.  There will be the quickly-remembered ones; there will also be the ones who are only recalled as you work on the next guideline—the “scenes.”  Depending on your decision whether or not to use their real names is not a concern at this beginning level.  What is important is that the roles they played are identified.
  3. Picture the scenes.  Use your wonderfully developed imagination to “see” the scenes (as in a movie).  Such as: When I tell the story of my Mother’s last days on this earth, I can see the CNA—a gentle giant of a gentleman—lifting her ever so carefully from a gurney to her bed.  Any movement—even her hand raising to motion for water—caused intense pain.  However, when he moved her, she experienced NO pain.

When inspirational writers begin their creative process with these three foundational exercises, it is remarkable how quickly their true story is developed.  Filling in the details becomes easy.  Then, once the first draft is complete, the other decisions—such as using the names of the real places and people—are also much simpler.  My suggestions for those choices are twofold:  If there are more than three people (other than you) in the story, consider using fictitious names.  Tracking people down to get permission to use their name can be time consuming and slows down the production of the book.  Also, if the place where the majority of the scenes are centered is too well-known—and would overshadow the impact of the story—then consider “setting” those scenes in a more generic place.

Final thought: NEVER hesitate to tell your story!  There are many hands and hearts out here in the self-publishing world to help you through the process.

Royalene ABOUT ROYALENE DOYLE: Royalene Doyle is a Ghostwriter with Outskirts Press, bringing more than 35 years of writing experience to authors who need “just a little assistance” with completing their writing projects. She has worked with both experienced and fledgling writers helping complete projects in multiple genres. When a writer brings the passion they have for their work and combines it with Royalene’s passion to see the finished project in print, books are published and the writer’s legacy is passed forward.

Friday Conversations With A Self-Publishing Writer 10/04/13

Inspiration; Encouragement; Hope; These are the topics that have the non-fiction shelves of the local bookstores overflowing and home libraries expanding.  This is also one of the areas of self-publishing that is a true gift to writers; the place where folks—ordinary folks—are finally able to tell their stories to those who wonder how they will ever survive their current circumstance.

Consider these examples:  The newly released book Oh What A Beautiful Mourning by Roderick G. Peters inspires and comforts our nation as he writes about the events of September 11, 2001—his story of life, history, horror, spiritual growth and development since that day.  Encouragement and inspiration ooze from the pages of Our Kids: Building Relationships in the Classroom by Chris Bowen—each chapter a lesson learned “from our children,” not just the lesson being taught.  And the true story/memoir of Terry Wadsworth Warne, TERRY: The Inspiring Story of a Little Girl’s Survival as a POW in WWII, that details those experiences with heart-rending accuracy while inspiring readers with the hope that they, too, can survive horrific things and live a happy life.

Are you one of those “folks” who has a story to tell?  Early in my ghostwriting efforts, a young man talked with me about an idea for a book that had been bugging him for a long time.  He had grown up on a pinto-bean farm experiencing many hardships and had an “I-almost-died” experience that made me consider the reality of Guardian Angels.  He was “going to” send me some of the handwritten pages he’d collected.  It’s been almost 20 years since then and even though I still recall his vivid descriptions and inspiring outcome—and we still keep in touch at Christmas—I doubt his story will see print.  Sad for him and for the reading public.  He made the assumption that publishing his story would be “next to impossible” and everything stopped there.

I love working with writers who are ready and willing to TELL their true stories.  Authors such as those listed from the book examples above write from the heart to touch the hurting hearts of other ordinary people—just like them.  These books become “helping hands” that reach out to lift up their neighbors, bring comfort and hope.  I applaud them, each and every one!

Then there are the writers who have been inspired by someone in history.  They have researched that person’s life, considered the results of that life-well-lived and want to hold them up as an example of excellence and success.  These stories become the Historical Novels—fictionalize, yet true—that show us the past, while engaging us with inspirational scenarios that can be carried into the present.

Are you the next author of one of these books?  I hope so!  Doing the writing work can take a bit of time, but there are lots of folks ready and able to help you along the way.  The self-publishing industry is growing—and offering more specific assistance—so do your homework when seeking writing and publishing support.  Listen for their passion to help you write and publish what is in your heart.

Royalene ABOUT ROYALENE DOYLE: Royalene Doyle is a Ghostwriter with Outskirts Press, bringing more than 35 years of writing experience to authors who need “just a little assistance” with completing their writing projects. She has worked with both experienced and fledgling writers helping complete projects in multiple genres. When a writer brings the passion they have for their work and combines it with Royalene’s passion to see the finished project in print, books are published and the writer’s legacy is passed forward.

Friday Conversations With A Self-Publishing Writer 9/27/13

Whether you are a novice writer, experienced writer, self-publishing writer, or dreaming of seeing your name on the cover of your book—and haven’t ever submitted a manuscript, anywhere—there is one central piece of advice I was given that I share with you today: NEVER QUIT!

Years ago, when I jumped in to an unexpected teaching position—with both feet and knees knocking—my daughter gave me a poster for my classroom.  In big, bold, bright-colored lettering it read: NEVER NEVER NEVER Quit!  The miracle of learning comes when you least expect it.  The truth of that statement played out many times, and since then, I have translated it into my personal pep-talks when I’m struggling with a writing project.

Ever read any of the stats about famous writers?  Mystery writer Agatha Christie had no formal education yet taught herself to read and eventually wrote at least 66 novels plus numerous short stories, and even movies.  John Grisham’s first novel was rejected 25 times.  Frank Herbert’s science fiction novel Dune was rejected 20 times.  Even Stephen King received more rejection letters than he cares to remember.  And, it has even been documented that Rudyard Kipling received a rejection letter stating: I’m sorry Mr. Kipling, but you just don’t know how to use the English language.  J.K. Rowling, author of the Harry Potter sagas, was turned away by 12 publishers only to be “discovered” by a very small publishing press. 

So, how do writers defeat the nay-sayers and the doubting thoughts that creep in?  We create our own, personalized, Pep Rally points:

  • Listen to your supporters!  Family, friends and other writers from your writing group who know your work and appreciate the story you’ve created can offer you the emotional support you’ll need before you publish and after you publish.Do you read the comics?  Remember when Charlie Brown was trying to kick a football and kept missing?  His good friend, Lucy, held the ball for him so that his perspective changed—just a bit—which helped him succeed.
  • Go to your first outlines and take note of the excellence in your writing! Yes, it really is okay to acknowledge that what you’ve created is well done!
  • Review the research.  If your project is based on a true story, maybe (just maybe) something slipped between the drafts. Then you can enjoy the satisfaction of enhancing the material—on your own—so that you can present the best manuscript.
  •  Re-think your publishing concepts.  If the general, mainstream publishers just don’t “get” what you’re writing, then look to the self-publishing presses. Children’s author, Beatrix Potter was not able to find a conventional publisher who would accept The Tale of Peter Rabbit.  She did not give up.  She self-published!

Someone once told me that “an apparent failure is only an opportunity to begin again; pray, reset, restart, refocus and succeed.”  I haven’t counted the numerous times this has happened in my writing life; however, I can tell you that I’ve never been happier with this gift of writing that keeps my fingers typing.  May you feel this satisfying enjoyment, too.

Royalene ABOUT ROYALENE DOYLE: Royalene Doyle is a Ghostwriter with Outskirts Press, bringing more than 35 years of writing experience to authors who need “just a little assistance” with completing their writing projects. She has worked with both experienced and fledgling writers helping complete projects in multiple genres. When a writer brings the passion they have for their work and combines it with Royalene’s passion to see the finished project in print, books are published and the writer’s legacy is passed forward.

Friday Conversations With A Self-Publishing Writer 9/20/13

One more thought about partnering with a ghostwriterTwo are better than one.  When you’ve started working with a writing-partner you’ll discover that one person’s idea spawns connecting thoughts in the other person; this collaboration produces a better book.  Much like film-making where writer and director join forces, the author and ghostwriter bring their own unique histories to play in the making of your book.  Thus I have three more criteria for finding that perfect partnership:

1)    Vision:  When you (the author) have formulated your core statement about your book—what it is, what it brings to the reader—does the person you’re interviewing share that vision?  Both you and your teammate should see that picture; have that same goal.

2)    Adaptability:  Some authors think they want a “helper” who will enhance their book by following the manuscript “exactly” as the author has written it.  That is every author’s decision to make; however, they should not waste their money hiring a true ghostwriter.  Employ the Editor who will correct grammar, punctuation, sentence structure; without creative input.

  1. However, the author who wants to explore enhancing their manuscript will be as adaptable and flexible as the ghostwriter they hire.  Their manuscript may, indeed, end up being very close to the original—or—very different with improved plot, character, setting (research required) elements that bring out the author’s inspired ideas.  This is especially true for authors in the Inspirational genre: fiction and non-fiction.

3)    Passion:  Both author and ghostwriter must share a passion for the subject matter of the manuscript.  Every book on every bookshelf was written to “tell something important.”  If the level of commitment is weak, so will be the finished product.

These three criteria also hold true after you’ve written the words: THE END.  Then the search begins for the right publisher.  Notice I’ve used the word right.  From my personal perspective I see too many authors open that door of “hope-they-will-accept-it,” then send out multiple queries to the “big” houses—and wait.  If you know that your book is ready to meet its readers, then step up and employ the best self-publishing company you can find.

There are several quality self-publishers out there (and some not so great); however, this is where you’ll use the same criteria that I’ve outlined in this and last Friday’s blog.  The self-publishing staff will become your book-making-crew—the cameraman, format editor, printer, marketing director.

  • Talk with them and ask for referrals from their published list.  Search their bookstore for two or three books in your genre, then ask for referral/contact information for those authors.
  • LOOK at the books they’ve printed—either at the bookstore or on the Internet.
  • Compare their publishing packages.  This is a competitive business, so don’t be swayed by the first dollar-difference you see between companies.
  • LISTEN to the Author Representatives.  It won’t take you long to discern whether they have a true passion for their work (helping authors like you)—or not.

Bottom line:  As the author, you are creating an alliance of experts dthat starts with you and ends when you hold your finished book in your hands.  “Two are better than one;” and a team that brings all their talents and skills together to produce your book is best.

Royalene ABOUT ROYALENE DOYLE: Royalene Doyle is a Ghostwriter with Outskirts Press, bringing more than 35 years of writing experience to authors who need “just a little assistance” with completing their writing projects. She has worked with both experienced and fledgling writers helping complete projects in multiple genres. When a writer brings the passion they have for their work and combines it with Royalene’s passion to see the finished project in print, books are published and the writer’s legacy is passed forward.